Glossary Terms & Definitions

Ariane – Headquartered in the French city of Evry-Courcouronnes near Paris, Arianespace is responsible for the production, operation and marketing of Ariane 5 launchers, and is partnered with its Starsem affiliate in commercial operations of the Soyuz launch vehicle. The company’s main base of operations is in French Guiana, where Ariane 5 launches are performed from Europe’s Spaceport. The company also has representative offices in Tokyo, Japan; Singapore, and Washington, D.C. in the United States..

AIO = All In One

Antenna – Satellite Dish

Autoroll/Key Autoroll – The receiver automatically updates the IDEA KEYS when the provider changes them so you don’t have to enter them with your remote control.

ATR – Answer to Reset

Azimuth – The Left/Right positioning of the satellite dish

Back Haul – Live Feed / Up link feed (E.G. Sporting events, News , Etc.) (Meant for station affiliates only.) Note: Never call trouble number on the screen it’s for TV stations only! (If they know you can see it, they may move it!.)

BB – Blackbird

Beam Edge – EIRP, G/T or flux density contour corresponding to the minimum performance over a coverage area.

Beam Peak – A single point within a coverage area with the highest performance (i.e., EIRP, Flux density or G/T)

BIN – A file in a BINary format suitable for flashing a ROM

Bird – A satellite

BL – blacklist the name of the coder that writes the bins for pansat and Ariza receivers

Blocker – Code placed on a rom card to prevent the satellite provider from stream locking the card.

Bouquet – A group of channels

BOX KEYS – Secret keys that are in each receiver’s firmware that identify the particular receiver.

BOOTSTRAP – Code that allows the receiver to power up and access the programming on the TSOP.

BSS – Broadcast Satellite Service. Also called DBS (Direct Broadcast Service). This is a satellite service that is uplinked for the specific purpose of reception directly by consumers. This includes XM/Sirius Radio, Direct TV, OffLimit, Off Limit, and Dish Network. Off limit, though a BSS service, actually operates in the FSS portion of Ku-Band.

BUD – Big Ugly Dish

Cable on a stick – Another name for the small dish

CAM – Conditional Access Module. With Dish/Off limit receivers, it is built-in. With FTA receivers such as Dreambox, it is a removable unit. CAMs process the information from the smart card and allow the receiver to decrypt channel information.

CAM ID – Individual identification number given to all Conditional Access Modules (Cam’s) produced for satellite providers. (The numbers on the back of the card under the barcode)

C-Band – 3700-4100 MHz (downlink) and 5925-6945 MHz (uplink) Frequency. Also the general name used for the big dish. Used mainly for commercial purposes: linking feeds to network affiliates and cable systems. Most of these are not intended for general use but you can subscribe to them and many of them are not encrypted.

Channel List – List of channels/transponders loaded to FTA receivers to allow them to receive programming. Cheap/easy way to get channels, but better results are obtained by scanning all available transponders in your area. Most channel lists are set up to match the dish network channel order.

Charlie – Charlie Ergen, DISH Network CEO. Also known as Dish Network

CI Slot – Common Interface Slot, CAM is inserted in this

Clarke Belt – Another name for the satellite belt. Named after it’s discoverer, Arthur C. Clarke

Clean Feed – No commercials (Back hauls usually) E.G. Watch the Zambonie clean the ice.

CLONING – Changing the IRD number, box keys, bootstrap etc. in a receiver’s TSOP to match another.

Closed – Encrypted or Scrambled channel

Composite Video – Phono (RCA) Video

Conditional Access – System in which access to a particular channel requires unit (box) information and channel tier information before decryption can take place. Used by Dish Net/Off limit receivers and CAM-equipped FTA receivers.

DISH Network – Digital Information Sky Highway Network

DBS – Digital Broadcast Satellite

dBW – A decibel reference to one watt. Express units of decibels above 1 w. X (dBW) = 10 log 10 (x / 1w)

Digicipher 2 – Encryption system and video standard created by Motorola. Used by StarChoice, 4DTV, and Digicipher 2 free-to-air (not the same as MPEG2 FTA).

Direction – Also called Azimuth

DiSEqC – Digital Satellite Equipment Control

DL Freq. – Delivery Frequency / Downlink Frequency

Downlink – A transmission link carrying information from a satellite spacecraft to earth. Typically down links carry telemetry, data and voice.

DSS – Digital Satellite System. Video standard used by Direct TV.

DVB – Digital Video Broadcast. Video standard used by Dish Network, Off Limit, PowerVu, and MPEG2 free-to-air.

ECM – Electronic Counter Measure

EEPROM – Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. for general testing purposes this can mean a card image or an eeprom image in a receiver. Includes basic command structure for function of the device.

EIRP – (Effective Isotopic Radiated Power) In a given direction, the gain of a transmitting antenna multiplied by the net power accepted by the antenna from the connected transmitter.

Elevation – The Up/Down positioning of the satellite dish

Encrypted – Digital Video and/or Audio have been encoded and require special keys or processes to make it visible.

EPG – Electronic Program Guide

FIRMWARE – Software in the TSOP that allows the receiver to run.

FLASHED – Software program that reads the TSOP bin and makes changes in specific locations such as; the IRD number, Box Keys, Bootstrap etc.

FSS – Fixed Satellite Service. Satellite service intended for commercial applications, such as transmitting feeds from an uplink facility to a downlink facility where it can then be processed for other uses. With few exceptions, FSS transmissions are usually not intended for consumers directly.

FTA – Free To Air, Non-encrypted channel (digital)

GHz – Abbreviation for GigaHertz

Glitching – A method of “breaking” a card’s encryption by using varying voltage and/or clock frequencies to allow access to internal areas of the card eeprom.

G/T – (Antenna gain-to-noise-temperature) The ratio of the gain to the noise temperature of the antenna. Usually the antenna-receiver system figure of merit is specified. For this case the figure of merit is the gain of the antenna divided by the system noise temperature referred to the antenna terminals. The system figure of merit at any reference plane in the RF system is the same as that taken at the antenna terminals since both the gain and system noise temperature are referred to the same reference plane at the antenna terminals.

IRD – Integrated Receiver Decoder

IR – Infra-Red

Iso programmer – Interface used for programming ISO cards. (smart cards) not to be confused with a glitcher (hu loader) or modded loader

ITC – In The Clear, Non-scrambled channel (analog)

JKEYS – Software used to read a receiver’s box keys

JTAG – Joint Team Action Group. A device made of five resistors and a DB-25 connector that allows the receiver to communicate with a computer. (JTAG is used to read from or write to the receiver’s TSOP)

Ka-Band – stands for “kurz-above”. Frequency 17.7-20.2 GHz (downlink). Will soon be the standard for broadband internet via satellite and may even become useful for DBS at some point in the future.

Ku-Band (BSS) – 12.2-12.7 (downlink) and 12.7-14.5 GHz (uplink). Used for Direct TV, Off Limit, and Dish Network. This portion of the Ku spectrum requires a circular LNB.

Ku-Band (FSS) – stands for “kurz-under”. The 10.7-12.2 GHz (downlink) and 12.7-14.5 GHz (uplink) portion of the satellite frequency spectrum. In North America, this portion of the Ku spectrum requires a linear LNB.

L-Band – 1000-1500 MHz satellite band. Most commonly used for Radionavigation (GPS) and weather satellite use.

LNB – Low Noise Block converter

LNBF – LNB Feedhorn – Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) and many Ku (FSS) dishes use an LNBF, which integrates the antenna’s feedhorn with the LNB. Small diplexers are often used to distribute the resulting IF signal (usually 950 to 1450MHz) “piggybacked” in the same cable TV wire that carries lower-frequency terrestrial television from an outdoor antenna. Another diplexer then separates the signals to the receiver of the TV set, and the IRD of the DBS set-top box.

L.O. Frequency – Local Oscillator Frequency (C-band = 5150, Ku Linear = 10750, Ku Circular = 11250)

Loader – Glitching device

Locked – 99% of the time this means the card is secured from access via a password placed on the card.

LOOPED – A card that has lost its ATR (Answer to Reset)

MCPC – Multi Channel Per Carrier

MHz – Abbreviation for MegaHertz

MPEG II – Moving Picture Experts Group II, A system for compression of digital data

MUX – A group of channels on same frequency

NAG – An on screen error message

NAGRA 1&2 – Nagravision encryption (Dish Network)

NTSC – National Television Standards Committee. TV standard used in North America, Japan, and most of Latin America.

Open – In The Clear or Free To Air

Open Access – System in which access to a provider’s entire network is accomplished by entering the public and parity keys. Used by the popular Fortec and Pansat receivers, as well as DVB-S cards.

P4 & P5 – Video guard encryption (Direct TV, Sky Mexico systems)

PAL – Phase Alternating Line. TV standard used in most parts of the world, including Asia, Europe, and Australia.

P-Band – 200-1000 MHz satellite band used for amateur DXing and weather satellite use. 200 MHz is the lowest satellite frequency possible because frequencies lower than that bounce off the ionosphere.

PCR – Packet Clock Rate

PID – Packet Identifier

Pizza Dish – Generic name for the small dish

PM – Private Messages

Polarization – The physical orientation of the waveform from the satellite. R/L are right and left ‘circular’ rotation similar to a corkscrew. H/V are horizontal/vertical similar to a fishing line cast either overhand or sidearm.

POP – (Point of presence) A physical interconnect locations where separate telecommunications networks meet and communicate with each other.

Rain Fade – When rain or snow affect the satellite signal. Also called attenuation.

RF – Radio Frequency

S-Band – 2310-2690 MHz frequency. The 2310-2360 MHz portion is used for XM and Sirius Radio. The higher portion (2500-2690 MHz) is allocated for DBS television service; but due to the small size of the spectrum, it has not been used.

SCPC – Single Channel Per Carrier

Scrambled – Analog video has been manipulated so that it is not intelligible.

SeaLaunch – Sea Launch Company, LLC, is an international partnership of American, Russian, Ukrainian and Norwegian businesses that provides a reliable, cost effective, heavy lift launch service for commercial customers. Building on proven performance and flight-tested hardware, Sea Launch offers superior value, high performance and fully integrated launch services. The Sea Launch equatorial launch site provides the most direct route to geostationary orbit, offering maximum lift capacity for increased payload mass or extended spacecraft life.

SECAM – Another TV standard used primarily in France and Russia.

SKEW – Rotation (Clockwise / Anti-Clockwise) of the LNB or LNBF

Smart Card – A credit-card sized card with a microchip containing decryption information. A smart card is read by a CAM.

SOFTWARE FIX – A software upgrade that gets around a NAG or ECM

STB – Set Top Box, the FTA (Free To Air) receiver

Stream Locked – Cards which have been placed into the data stream without a blocker or with a poorly-designed blocker. Stream locked cards are locked from access by Dish Network and you must use a modded loader to gain access to the again. Not all stream locked revisions are unlockable.

Symbol Rate (SR) – Size of the digital package transmission

TDG – thedssguy (spokesman for viewsat coders).

Teleport – A physical location and interface between a satellite systems and telecommunications networks on the ground. It includes a variety of satellite dishes, earth stations, and supporting ground equipment.

TP – Transponder

TP Autoroll – The receiver automatically updates the channels to the correct transponders when the provider moves channel around on the transponders.

Transponder – A receiver/transmitter combination which receives a signal and retransmits it at a different carrier frequency. Transponders are used in communication satellites for redirecting signals to earth stations or in a spacecraft for returning ranging signals.

TSOP – Thin Small Outline Package (The memory chip within the receiver, which contains the software to run it

UHF – Ultra High Frequency

Unlocker – Modded glitching device used to unlock cards see definition of glitching above.

Unlooper – Glitching device used to unloop cards

Unloop – Method of accessing areas of a damaged card in order to restore proper coding and allow the card to function again.

Uplink – A ground to satellite link

V-Band – Frequency 47.2-275 GHz. V-band is actually a generic term for the several FSS bands that exist in that huge portion of the spectrum.

VC – Virtual Channel

VC II+ – VideoCipher II + decoder

Virgin Image – In all relevant terms for testing, a non-stream locked image of a Rom Card or Tsop firmware.

Wild Feed – Show that is not yet scheduled to air. (Meant for station affiliates only.) Note: Never call trouble number on the screen it’s for TV stations only! (If they know you can see it, they may move it!) Also, you will probably see “dead Air.” (black screen) This is where the TV stations insert their local commercials

X-Band – 7250-7750 MHz (downlink) and 7900-8400 (uplink) frequency. Used for military purposes.

Glossary of DBS Acronyms and Terms

APG – Advanced Program Guide

ATSC – Advance Television Standards Committee

BBC – B Band Converter

BEV – Bell Express Vu

BSB – Black Screen Bug

BSD – Black (or Blue) Screen Of Death

BSS – Broadcast satellite services, another name for DBS

BUD – Big Ugly Dish (C-Band)

C Band – Satellite frequencies between 3.7 and 4.2ghz

CID – Caller ID

CIR – Channels I Receive

DBS – Direct Broadcast Satellite

DD – Dolby Digital

DLB – Dual Live Buffers

DMA – Designated Market Area – Channels from a city that can be received with an antenna

Down-Res – Decreasing The Resolution Of A Channel To Save Bandwidth

DP – Dish Player

DRM – Digital Rights Management / Copy protection in digital files

DTH – Direct to home satellite services including BSS, DBS, and FSS.

DVI – Digital Video Interface

DVR – Digital Video Recorder

E* – Echostar (Dish Network)

EPG – Electronic Program Guide

FSS – Fixed Service Satellite, original Direct to home frequencies

FTA – Free To Air

FTM – Frequency Translation Module (See SWM)

Ghz – Gigahertz

HD – High Definition

HDTV – High Definition TV

HD/Lite – Bit Starved or Down-Resed High Definition Channel

HDMI – High Definition Multimedia Interface

ILS – International Launch Services

IR – Infrared

IKD – Instant Keep Or Delete

IRD – Integrated Decoder/Receiver

Ka Band – Satellite frequencies between 18ghz and 40ghz

Ku Band – Satellite frequencies between 12ghz and 18ghz

LIL – Local Into Local

LNB – Low Noise Block (Converter)

Mhz – Megahertz

MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 – Compression Algorithm

MS or M$ – Microsoft

MSO – MultiSystem Cable Operator

NFLST – National Football League Sunday Ticket

NTSC – National Television Standards Committee

O&O – Owned And Operated

OOM – Out Of Market

OP – Original Poster

OTA – Over The Air

P* – Primestar

PCM – Pulse Code Modulation

PID – Program Information Data

Pinky – When The TrickPlay Icon Changes To Pink

PVR – Personal Video Recorder

RBR – Red Button Reset

SA or SA* – Dominion (Sky Angel)

SL – Series Link

STB – Set Top Box

SD – Standard Definition

SWM – Single Wire Multiswitch

TDL – To Do List

TOSLINK – A fiber optics signal connection system, commonly used in audio applications.

TP or TR – Transponder

TrickPlay – Any Motion Of The Video Playback other Than Standard Speeds (1x, 2x, 30 sec slip, etc)

TVRO – Television Receive Only

ULA – United Launch Alliance

*C – Star Choice